gerichtet auf eine einzige, von allen anerkannte und in allen Bildungsinstanzen gelehrte, über einen sprachnationalen Textkanon allen Sprachangehörigen vermittelte Norm [...].Vertikal organisiertes sprachliches Handeln [läßt] kaum Platz für graphische, flexions- und wortbildungsmorphologische, lexikalische und syntaktische Varianz.knoop 1987 also points out:"Mit der Kodifikation der Norm werden zum erstenmal alle von ihr nun abweichenden Rede- und auch Schreibweisen diskriminierbar in des Wortes zweifacher Bedeutung: man kann sie unterscheiden, abtrennen und man kann sie (dann) ablehnen.
In his social history of 1987 wehler describes the emergence of a new social type which arose particularly in the Protestant north and in the eastern German states during the 18th century: "Das ist der akademisch geschulte, überwiegend an Karrieren im Staats- und Stadtdienst gebundene Bildungsbürger [...]." (cf.
Wehler 190)This new educated citizenry aspired to distance itself from both French in its role as the accepted language of the nobility as well as from the language of the "mob", above all from dialect which, up to this time, had borne solely the tag of being regional but which now bore the extra tag of being social.
In line with Reichmann 19, I wish to describe these restrictive or substituting processes as "verticalisation of the variation spectrum".
The term verticalisation should be interpreted as follows:"Vertikal organisiertes Sprechen und Schreiben ist [...] im Grenzwert unizentrisch, d.h.
in the grammar of Early New High German published by Moser, Stopp and Besch or in the second volume of von Polenz's history of the German Language.
I would like to take adjective declension in the first half of the 18th century as an example in order to demonstrate that the transition from the Early New High German to the New High German periods involved processes of substitution and reduction which are in no way motivated on the description-functional level.Reichmann 194)Assuming, however, that the verticalisation of the spectrum of variations which marks the transition to the New High German period led to the selection of one single variation accepted as norm as opposed to the negatively labelled competitors, from now on referred to as "incorrect", it is essential to be able to prove two theses:1.that all other variations which did not assert themselves were just as functional and not at all "diffuse", which implies that there are no functional reasons for the acceptance of the New High German variation as norm, and2.Thus, one speaks generally of an increasing systematisation, of descriptional adequacy, of greater accuracy or of an increase in efficiency.Such statements have been made by Soviet philologists of German, authors of the 'Akademie der Wissenschaften' of the former GDR as well as in recent studies, e.g.I start from the hypothesis that it is not possible to assume an "older more diffuse state", as von Polenz (199) puts it, for the Early New High German period but rather a tolerance of variations which is characterised by a co-existence of various possibilities for inflection, indication and determination.