As the rising phase reaches its peak, voltage-gated Na channels are inactivated whereas voltage-gated K channels are activated, resulting in a net outward movement of K ions, which repolarizes the membrane potential towards the resting membrane potential.Repolarization of the membrane potential continues, resulting in an undershoot phase or absolute refractory period.Neurons are diverse with respect to morphology and function.
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When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.
These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.
After neurotransmitters are synthesized, they are packaged and stored in vesicles.
These vesicles are pooled together in terminal boutons of the presynaptic neuron.
As Na ions enter the cell, the membrane potential is further depolarized, and more voltage-gated sodium channels are activated.
Such a process is also known as a positive feedback loop.
Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.