In his study of mountains Arduino agreed with Lehmann in many ways and gave the three classifications of rocks the names Primitive, Secondary and Tertiary.
One of the prominent opponents of the organic origin of fossils was Martin Lister (1638-1712), an English physician and naturalist.
John Ray (1627-1705), the greatest naturalist of his time, favoured organic origin although he respected Lister’s objections.
Three, the order of superposition of the layers indicates the relative age of the strata (the older deposited below the younger). The British Journal for the History of Science IX(32):91.
Four, the sediments were originally deposited in an essentially horizontal fashion.
The idea that the earth was much older than the Bible teaches slowly replaced the traditional view during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Geologists such as the Frenchmen Jean Elienne Guettard (1715-1786) and Nicholas Desmarest (1725-1815) and the Italian Giovanne Arduino (1714-1795) denied the Flood and advocated a much older Earth. He had an evolutionary view of the origin and diversification of life (but offered no mechanism for such change) and his geological ideas were similar to Lyell’s later uniformitarian theory. The astronomer Pierre Laplace (1749-1827) was strongly motivated to eliminate the idea of design or purpose from scientific investigations. Prior to 1750 one of the most important geological thinkers was the Danish anatomist and geologist Nicholaus Steno (1638-1686). Born to Protestant parents, he became a Roman Catholic in 1667. But other scholars rejected these ideas and regarded fossils as either jokes of nature, the products of rocks endowed with life in some sense, the creative works of God, or perhaps even the deceptions of Satan.